Table of Contents
UPSC Philosophy Prelims Syllabus
Section-A Problems of Philosophy
Substance and Attributes: Aristole, Descartes, Locke, Berkeley’s criticism, Nyaya-Viasesika, Buddhist criticism of Pudgala.
God, Soul and the World: Thomas Acquinas, St. Augustine, Spinoza, Descartes, Nyaya-Vaisesika, Sankara, Ramanuja.
Universals: Realism and Nominalism (Plato, Aristotle, Berkeley’s criticism of abstract ideas, Nyay-Vaisesika, Buddhism).
Bases of Knowledge: Pramanavada in Carvaka, Nyaya-Vaisesika, Buddhism, Advaita Vedanta.
Truth and Error: Correspondence Theory, Coherence theory, Pragmatic Theory; Khyativada (Anyathakhyati, Akhyati, Anivacaniyakhyati).
- Truth and Validity
- Classification of sentences: Traditional and Modern.
- Syllogism: Figures and Moods; Rules of Syllogism (General and special) validation by Venn Diagrames; Formal Fallacies.
- Sentential Calculus: Symbolisation; Truth-Functions and their interdefinability; Truth Tables; Formal Proof.
- Statement of fact and statement of value.
- Right and Good; Teleology and Deontology.
- Psychological Hedonism.
- Utilitarianism (Bentham; J.S. Mill).
- Kantian Ethics.
- Problem of the freedom of will.
- Moral Judgements : Descriptivism, Prescriptivism, Emotivism.
- Niskamakarma : Sthitaprajna.
- Jaina Ethics
- Four Noble Truths and Eight fold path in Buddhism.
- Gandhian Ethics : Satya, Ahimsa, Ends and Means.
UPSC Philosophy Mains Syllabus
Candidates who had successfully qualified IAS Prelims exam and want to take part in the Indian Administrative Service Mains Exams must check UPSC IAS Philosophy Mains Syllabus here.
UPSC Philosophy Syllabus Section A
History and Problems of Philosophy
- Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality.
- Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz): Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.
- Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.
- Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God
- Hegel: Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism
- Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein: Defence of Commonsense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing.
- Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.
- Later Wittgenstein: Meaning and Use; Language-games; Critique of Private Language.
- Phenomenology (Husserl): Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism.
- Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger): Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the –world and Temporality.
- Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and Persons.
- Ca-rva-ka : Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendent Entities.
- Jainism: Theory of Reality; Saptabhan(ginaya; Bondage and Liberation.
- Schools of Buddhism: Prati-tyasamutpa-da; Ksanikavada, Naira-tmyava-da
- Nya-ya- Vais’esika: Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of Prama-na; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.
- Sa-mkhya: Prakrti; Purusa; Causation; Liberation
- Yoga: Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya.
- Mima-msa-: Theory of Knowledge
- Schools of Veda-nta: Brahman; I-s’vara; A-tman; Jiva; Jagat; Ma-ya-; Avidya-; Adhya-sa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda
- Aurobindo: Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.
UPSC Philosophy Syllabus Section B
- Social and Political Ideals: Equality, Justice, Liberty.
- Sovereignty: Austin, Bodin, Laski, Kautilya.
- Individual and State: Rights; Duties and Accountability
- Forms of Government: Monarchy; Theocracy and Democracy.
- Political Ideologies: Anarchism; Marxism and Socialism
- Humanism; Secularism; Multiculturalism.
- Crime and Punishment: Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide, Capital Punishment.
- Development and Social Progress.
- Gender Discrimination: Female Foeticide, Land and Property Rights; Empowernment.
- Caste Discrimination: Gandhi and Ambedkar
Philosophy of Religion: UPSC Philosophy Syllabus
- Notions of God: Attributes; Relation to Man and the World. (Indian and Western).
- Proofs for the Existence of God and their Critique (Indian and Western).
- Problem of Evil.
- Soul: Immortality; Rebirth and Liberation.
- Reason, Revelation and Faith.
- Religious Experience: Nature and Object (Indian and Western).
- Religion without God.
- Religion and Morality.
- Religious Pluralism and the Problem of Absolute Truth.
- Nature of Religious Language: Analogical and Symbolic; Cognitivist and Non- cognitive.