Blood: Composition and functions, blood collection and preservation, use of blood for species identification by various techniques like tube precipitation, gel diffusion techniques. Theories and biochemical tests for the identification of blood. Human blood groups: General principles and theory of their inheritance. Blood grouping from fresh blood, stains of blood, semen, saliva and other body fluids by various direct and indirect typing techniques (A, B and O grouping, Rh sub types, HLA typing, MN system). Signification of blood typing in establishing paternity and criminal investigations. Identification of menstrual blood, amniotic fluid and parturition stains. Application of various polymorphic enzymes and proteins in criminal investigation. Hemoglobin and its variants (Hbf-Hbs-Hbc-HbA). Forensic Examination of semen, saliva, urine, faeces, milk samples by various biochemical and chromatographic techniques. 

Cell biology and Immunology

Introduction: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell. Structure and function of nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, mitochondria, chloroplast and lysosomes, organization of nucleus and nuclear transport, three dimensional organization and functions of cytoskeletons (Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules and associated proteins) Concept of innate (native) and acquired (adaptive) immunity. Introduction to immune response; Cells and organs of immune system, B-cells, T-cells and Null cells, antigen presenting cells, Antigen: Epitopes, factors affecting antigenicity, hapten and adjuvants. Antibodies: classes, physio-chemical properties and function of antibodies, raising of antisera, lectins and their forensic significance. Antigen – Antibody reactions and their techniques in serological analysis: Precipitin reaction, Agglutination reaction, Complement fixation reaction, Immunofluorescence, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA), Radio Immunoassay (RIA); Radio-AllergoSorbent test (RAST). Determination of origin of species by immunological methods. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) and Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA). Introduction to immune disorders: autoimmune disorders, hypersensitivity and immunodeficiency.

Basics of DNA fingerprinting

History of DNA fingerprinting and DNA polymorphism. Application of DNA fingerprinting in forensic science. Basics of human genetics, Chemical structure of DNA and RNA. DNA as genetic material. DNA replication, transcription and translation. Biochemical regulation of gene expression. DNA modifying enzymes: Endonucleases, exonucleases, ligases. Mitochondrial DNA analysis in forensic investigation. DNA sequencing techniques, Non-human DNA and its analysis. New and future technologies: DNA chips, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) analysis.   

Forensic DNA Analysis
Procedure for collection and preservation of biological sample for DNA analysis. Genes and DNA markers. Techniques of DNA isolation and its quantification. Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR). Single and Multiplex PCR. RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and PCR based techniques in DNA analysis. Y-STR analysis and its significance in establishing paternal relationships. DNA profiling of wildlife species and their forensic applications. Result of STR marker analysis and its interpretation. Significance of match and statistical aspects. Introduction to online databases of forensic importance: BOLD. NCBI, STRbase, EXPASY, CODIS, NDNAD.

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